Mongolia

Mongolia is the world’s largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. Sandwiched between Russia to the north and China to the south, the majority of its 1.5 million square kilometers is covered by grassy steppe, with high mountains to the north and west and the Gobi desert to the south. The territory of Mongolia was ruled by various nomadic tribes before Gengis Khan founded the Mongol Empire in 1206, and expanded it into the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China proper and established the Yuan dynasty. Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia in the 16th century, led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty which absorbed Mongolia in 1711. By the 20th century almost one-third of the male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty, Mongolia achieved independence from China in 1921. Despite the tides of globalization, Mongolia retains the largest pastoralist society on Earth, with nearly 30% of the population being nomadic or semi-nomadic.

With its rich history, dating back to the Mongol empire of Gengis Khan and beyond, breathtaking landscapes from the Altai mountains to the vast grass steppes to the Gobi desert, pervasive outdoor adventures, and rich culture, Mongolia is a unique treasure that must be experienced to be believed.


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